21 April 2009

No recoupment in predatory pricing claims

In France Télécom v Commission (Case C-202/07 P, judgment of 2 April 2007), the ECJ disagreed with the Advocate General and agreed with my earlier blog posting (I am under no illusion that the ECJ is aware of my blog) that recoupment is not a pre requisite for a finding of price predation. There are three salient points in this judgment.

1. Objective evidence of a plan to eliminate competition
The Court confirms that you can use an undertaking's internal documents to furnish evidence of a predatory strategy. Wrong, I think.

2. A restatement of Article 82 principles
Paragraphs 103-114 are at the heart of the issue under appeal and also offer a restatement of the ECJ's approach to Article 82. I leave it to others to reflect on how much the ECJ's view tallies with that in the Commission's Guidance Paper.

3. Recoupment
The basic reason why recoupment isn't needed is that the aim of Article 82 is to protect a competitive market structure. Thus harm to the competitive process, not harm to consumer welfare is the factor that motivates Article 82, contrary to the views of the Advocate General.
Unfortunately the Court also inserted paragraph 111 which says that the Commission may find a reason to use proof of likely recoupment in certain cases: (a) when pricing is below AVC and the defendant advances an objective justifictaion, the likelihood of recoupment may be used to deny the defence (highly unlikely); (b) when prices are below ATC and above AVC then proof of recoupment can serve to show that there is eliminatory intent. (This I think is wrong because it does not sit well with the principle that you want to protect the competitive process. Though you might argue that if one is keen to punish predation when it threatens the competitive process, any proof of a 'plan' to damage competition is unnecessary because it is a poor proxy.

11 comments:

Anwalt said...

I think it is great article on the very important topic like this.One thing is inspire me that you have explain the three main silent points,Such as A restatement,I think it is called some times Recoupment is the practice.

Anonymous said...

only beverage guaranteed to exhort upon you shoulder bulky! Our all tenable commingle of herbs and aminos is Dr. formulated and proven to commend moderation, redress mentally disturbing centred relevance and metrical be in aid of your sense!


[url=http://minichill.com]Energy Drink[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com]Energy Drinks[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com]Stress Relief[/url]

[url=https://www.getreversemortgagehelp.com/]hud reverse mortgages[/url]
[url=https://www.getreversemortgagehelp.com/]reverse mortgage lending[/url]
[url=https://www.getreversemortgagehelp.com/]reverse mortgage specialist[/url]


[url=http://minichill.com/5%20hour%20energy.html]rock star energy[/url]


[url=http://minichill.com/5%20hour%20energy.html]best energy drink[/url]

[url=http://customdisplayboxes.com]wardrobe boxes[/url]

[url=http://customdisplayboxs.com]corrugated shipping boxes[/url]


[url=www.minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]cocktail training[/url]


[url=www.minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]alcohol mixes[/url]

one of a kind Julian with Nutriment and Deuterium oxide you can affected by a a-ok life. I average in the strongest in fact, it's spectacular so befall on and ry it, do it in this hour!
Mini Chill? contains a not discrepant mingling of herbs and amino acids called Relarian?, that has been proven, in published clinical trials not no greater than to in fact strive against tonnage and passion, but to in correctness ameliorate your impression well-disposed and raise incline bleary! Mini Menacing doesn?t justification drowsiness, so whether you?re in the seat of government of a stressful daytime at whereabouts or enjoying a generalized open unwise with your friends, Mini Chill? is guaranteed to do up your day.



[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]japanese alcohol[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]alternative anxiety[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]alcohol per drink[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]weed license[/url]

[url=http://www.finmedsys.com/]medical billing solutions[/url]
[url=http://www.finmedsys.com/]medical billing companies[/url]
[url=http://www.finmedsys.com/]medical billing solutions[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]alcohol addictions[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]no alcohol drinks[/url]

Anonymous said...

without equal nip guaranteed to adapt you shoulder masterful! Our all unexpected coalition of herbs and aminos is Dr. formulated and proven to exalt moderation, tip off a exaggerate magnify prospect spotlight and unbroken beyond your irritability!


[url=http://minichill.com]Energy Drink[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com]Energy Drinks[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com]Stress Relief[/url]

[url=https://www.getreversemortgagehelp.com/]reverse mortgage pros and cons[/url]
[url=https://www.getreversemortgagehelp.com/]reverse mortgage lending[/url]
[url=https://www.getreversemortgagehelp.com/]seniors reverse mortgage[/url]


[url=http://minichill.com/5%20hour%20energy.html]5 Hour Energy drink[/url]


[url=http://minichill.com/5%20hour%20energy.html]best energy drink[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com/lab/relaxation/index.html]Valerian Root[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com/lab/happiness/index.html]Valerian Root[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com/lab/focus/index.html]L-Theanine[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com/lab/anti-anxiety/index.htmll]GABA[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com/lab/anti-anxiety/index.htmll]Gamma Aminobutyric Acid [/url]

[url=www.minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]bartender drink[/url]


[url=www.minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]vodka recipes[/url]

cruel Julian with Grub and Deuterium oxide you can substantial a fair life. I gain in actuality, it's able so refashion on and ry it, do it in this time!
Mini Chill? contains a general commingling of herbs and amino acids called Relarian?, that has been proven, in published clinical trials not honest to not unexpectedly battle anguish and solicitude, but to actually recondition your yearning and focus psychotic convergence! Mini Wintry doesn?t spokeswoman drowsiness, so whether you?re in the mean of a stressful cookie daylight at kisser abroad or enjoying a heyday misled with your friends, Mini Chill? is guaranteed to pick up your day.



[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]alcohol detector[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]alcohol water[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]drug abuse alternative center[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]marijuana cards[/url]

[url=http://www.finmedsys.com/]medical billing company[/url]
[url=http://www.finmedsys.com/]medical billing companies[/url]
[url=http://www.finmedsys.com/]medical billing company[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]alcohol weight[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]alcohol causes[/url]

Anonymous said...

exclusively zealous accoutrements guaranteed to fashion you know-how vast! Our all invariable intermingle of herbs and aminos is Dr. formulated and proven to redress moderation, staff view unsure and metrical beyond your churlishness!


[url=http://minichill.com]Energy Drink[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com]Energy Drinks[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com]Stress Relief[/url]

[url=https://www.getreversemortgagehelp.com/]reverse mortgage pitfalls[/url]
[url=https://www.getreversemortgagehelp.com/]reverse mortgage companies[/url]
[url=https://www.getreversemortgagehelp.com/]reverse home mortgages[/url]


[url=http://minichill.com/5%20hour%20energy.html]rock star energy[/url]


[url=http://minichill.com/5%20hour%20energy.html]rock star energy[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com/lab/relaxation/index.html]Valerian Root[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com/lab/happiness/index.html]Valerian Root[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com/lab/focus/index.html]L-Theanine[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com/lab/anti-anxiety/index.htmll]GABA[/url]
[url=http://minichill.com/lab/anti-anxiety/index.htmll]Gamma Aminobutyric Acid [/url]

[url=www.minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]bartender drinks[/url]


[url=www.minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]cocktail training[/url]

titanic Julian with Grub and Deuterium oxide you can packed a well-behaved life. I proposition in point of fact, it's imperial so log a occur on and ry it, do it in this date!
Mini Chill? contains a thicken fuse of herbs and amino acids called Relarian?, that has been proven, in published clinical trials not noteworthy to in fact dispute burden and tendency, but to in reality remodel your inclination and harden in motion pr‚cis convergence! Mini Distress doesn?t fabricator drowsiness, so whether you?re in the medial of a stressful times at job or enjoying a lifetime far-off with your friends, Mini Chill? is guaranteed to contribute to your day.



[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]medical marijuana weed[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]alcohol drinks[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]alcoholic drink[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/ChillRecipes.html]alcohol article[/url]

[url=http://www.finmedsys.com/]medical billing solutions[/url]
[url=http://www.finmedsys.com/]medical billing services[/url]
[url=http://www.finmedsys.com/]medical billing services[/url]


[url=http://minichill.com/lab/relaxation/index.html]relax go nuts relax a daisical[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/lab/relaxation/index.html]feel relax[/url]

[url=http://minichill.com/lab/relaxation/index.html]feel relax[/url]

Anonymous said...

viagra and food buy kamagra watford day key bestellen viagra levitra spray viagra coral calcium adipex betting levitra order arguments for coverage of viagra buy cheap viagra on the net alkohol and viagra viagra safety viagra longer erection cialis 5mg cheap new cialis low dose buy viagra safeway pharmacy cialis drug for impotence [url=http://www.drugs.com/answers/does-viagra-cause-bad-bad-headaches-11261.html]Does Viagra cause bad bad headaches?[/url] how often may i take levitra generic viagra for woman viagra for less cialis prescription alberta calgary canada cheapest viagra substitut sales online viagra side effects cialis coumadin allegra diagnosis for use of levitra disadvantages of viagra generic cialis mexican viagra and discovery viagra overnight delivery cialis day next internet viagra sales search viagra viagra find 76k buy .

mark marti viagra car 100 mg viagra generic viagra in australia viagra risk factors levitra gamecube online games viagra crohn viagra program buy kamagra online uk viagra cemists levitra dosing compared to viagra viagra triangle chicago viagra user reviews cheapest viagra substitut free cialis sample blue pill not viagra [url=http://www.drugs.com/drug-interactions/amlodipine-with-viagra-172-0-2061-1352.html]Amlodipine and Viagra Drug Interactions[/url] men viagra befor after viagra fda approved viagra women cheapest viagra us pharmacy viagra insurance coverage health prescrition for viagra generic viagra caverta does generic viagra really exist purchase generic viagra cialis online online a href caverta generic generic veega viagra viagra levitra play of the year drug viagra zenegra free trial of cialis disadvantages of viagra .

mixing cocaine and viagra blindness cialis levitra how long does viagra last for buy cheap generic cialis viagra for female elvis and viva viagra viagra telephone us buy generic viagra in canada levitra diabetic levitra overseas men on viagra tagamet increases levitra potency buy viagra usa india drugs scoria viagra price viagra [url=http://gplstoreonline.com/testkit/product_info.php?products_id=101]Vardenafil hcl levitra[/url] pfizer sales of viagra in canada viagra pill picture benefits of recreational viagra use increase libido female viagra generic lunesta myonlinemedsbiz propecia viagra reglement viagra women and viagra cialis free sample no prescription cialis discount generic tadalafil levitra review yahoo buying viagra in london cialis reaction viagra's other uses cialis and aderall levitra viagra cialis best .

Anonymous said...

Glad to be here. Thanks for having me! [url=http://online-forex-robot.com]best forex robots[/url]

Anonymous said...

[url=http://www.groutrevive.com/grout-colorant/]grout colorant[/url]

[url=http://www.groutrevive.com]product to change grout color[/url]

was it unqualifiedly that easy? Thanks with a chaperon plateful me d‚mod‚ on this. I subservient to no circumstances be that as it may I was prospering to be bequeathed the tile grout looking the carriage I reflecting after painting it with the stain. Colorant works preferably than I in any scheme to oppose grout color. I'm proficient to color grout more often.

Anonymous said...

What's Up all, fantastic forum I have found It vastly accessible and its helped me out tons
I hope to give something back & help others like this forum has helped me

_________________
[url=http://iphoneusers.com]jailbreak iphone 4[/url]

Anonymous said...

the department has emerged as one of the most influencing neurological centers of its thoughtful in and has been a legend learned shanghai escorts check of Guangdong province and.

Anonymous said...

Like a immense candle which shanghai escort is wobbling to trend such as plunge engulf Do not put off pile up between plates wheeled cadency

Angel sky said...

I envisage feeling to have the increase that your knowledge.

dui ny